等级平均

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等级平均是通过在课程中授予的所有数值等级的总和,然后将该总数除以奖励的总成绩,是计算学期的实践,终止期间或年末课程等级。使用该过程,教师计算标记周期的平均值或平均最终等级,其可以被记录为反映数值等同物的数值等级或字母等级(例如,A的等级可以等同于a-90)。等级平均和累积计算等级点平均值(或GPA)是美国公立学校使用的最常见的分级实践之一。

虽然等级平均是一个直接的数学过程,但学校到学校的评分系统的变化可能会引入复杂层。例如,一些学校使用过加权等级, the practice of assigning a numerical advantage to grades earned in higher-level courses, and others may assign different levels of importance or “weight” to certain grades earned in a course—e.g., a final exam may represent 30 percent of a final grade, while a homework assignment may represent only five percent. In addition, some teachers also base grades on non-academic factors such as student behavior, in-class participation, timely homework completion, or attendance. While the examples above reflect a few common grading formulations, grading systems and GPA scales may vary significantly from one school or school district to the next.

由于分级系统通常反映学术计划的特定结构,并且他们以不同的方式计算从学校到学校,记者应该调查如何计算成绩,用于支持它们的基本原理,以及可能导致哪些优势或缺点学生们。

辩论

近年来,等级平均和其他传统的分级实践已成为改革的目标,这使得实践成为辩论的来源。

一种dvocates may argue that grade averaging has been standard practice in public schools for decades, that it’s a simple and easily understood system for calculating grades, and that students who perform poorly on assignments or fail to meet course expectations should not be given the opportunity to earn a grade that is comparable to or potentially higher than students who performed well throughout the course and fulfilled all course expectations. In this view, averaging grades not only rewards consistent performance, but a failure to base final grades on consistent performance would be unfair to students who performed well throughout the semester, term, or year.

另一方面,级别的批评者可能争辩说,这种做法不仅呈现了学生成就,学术努力和学习增长的误导性或不准确的图像,而且它可能对学生动机,自信有害影响和教育程度。虽然反对等级平均的论据既有众多和细微差别,则以下代表批评的一些主要观点:

  • 等级平均不准确代表学术努力或学习增长。如果课程开始或学期的成绩计数与术语末尾的成绩相同,如果学生起初挣扎,努力工作,随着时间的推移,课程前早些时候授予的成绩会努力bring down the student’s final grade. Consequently, the effort and academic progress made over the course of a semester or year will not be reflected in the final grade. The same rationale would apply to grade point averages: if students fail several courses during their freshmen year, but then they make a dramatic turnaround and earn all As for the remainder of their high school tenure, their final GPAs will not reflect that improvement because those early failures are factored in to the final average. In addition, teachers may not have the autonomy when averaging grades to consider non-academic factors such as an unforeseen health issue or a family crisis that may negatively affect a student’s academic performance for a certain period of time.
  • 等级平均引入了改善的抑制因素。如果一名学生在年初少数作业,那些早期的失败将对学生最终实现的最终成绩施加明确的数学限制。因此,由于他们的最终成绩不会反映这种努力或学习进步,学生可能不会努力工作或克服过去的失败。
  • 年级平均优势,学生开始准备的课程和缺点的学生开始毫无准备。由于当成绩平均时,可能无法准确地代表学习进度和努力,以便在学校以更多的教育,技能或家庭支持开始学校的学生具有强大的优势 - 就他们赚取良好等级的高等级而不是到达更少准备的学生的可能性。由于学术准备倾向于横向镜像因素,如社会经济和少数群体地位,因此等级平均也可能提高担忧公平
  • 等级平均不会准确捕获学生学到或未能学习的内容。倡导者基于水平的学习例如,可能认为平均等级是衡量和报告学术成果和学习进度的方法不足。如果成绩没有与成立联系学习标准而且学生工作并不始终如一地评估课程和老师对教师,那么等级不仅传达了关于学生所学到的内容的少数信息,而且他们实际上可能存在误导性或不准确的学术成就的画面。在这种观点中,等级平均只会加剧歪曲的可能性。